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Elevator rail installation process

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Author : Cobain
Update time : 2021-05-06 15:04:42
Elevator rail installation process
The rail not only controls the running trajectory of the elevator car and the weight, but also the solid support of the elevator emergency brake when the car accidentally overspeeds. Therefore, elevator rails are important components related to elevator operation quality and elevator safety. The quality of elevator operation is closely related to the quality of elevator installation. The quality of elevator installation is related to the quality of rail installation. This paper mainly analyzes the installation process of rail support and rail, and puts forward reasonable solutions to the existing problems.
1,the installation of rail support
    Installation process:
(1) If the elevator shaft is a brick wall, the general use of concrete watering rail support method, the depth is not less than 130mm;
(2) For wellways with brick mixed and concrete ring beams, rail supports should be installed on concrete ring beams
(3) the vertical deviation of the wellway exceeds the standard, need to communicate with Party A, modify the wellway or add the rail support gasket to adjust;
(4) After the completion of the wellway design, the use of different brands of elevators, according to the actual situation of the installation of rail support;
(5)the wellway size is larger than the standard drawing, the choice of elonger rail bracket;
(6)According to the actual distance between the rail support and the well wall, the rail support is machined sequentially. According to the center line and auxiliary wire of the rail bracket, determine the position of the rail support, correct it with a horizontal ruler, and then spot welding.
    There is a problem:
(1) The red brick at the lower end of the concrete is cracked, the concrete surface is hit with a hammer, and the red brick is exposed
(2) The concrete ring beams are evenly distributed in the wellway and the bottom and top rail supports cannot be installed on the ring beams. The spacing between the ring beams is less than 2.5m,and the number of rail supports is not enough
(3) After the wellway is built, the cost of re-modification is huge, by adding gaskets between the rails and between the substrates only suitable for the deviation of the wellway, if the pads into more than 7mm gaskets, will cause the rail installation is not secure, the gasket spot welding, with the building subsidence, the base code and gasket between displacement, gasket off, will cause the rail loose;
(4) Hitachi Mitsubishi and other manufacturers of elevators, car size is smaller, the need for wellway size is also smaller. /b12> OTIS,KONE,Thyssen and other manufacturers of elevators, car size is larger, the need for wellway size is also larger. If the wellway is designed according to the Mitsubishi Elevator Model, it may not be possible to install the OTIS elevator. If the well path is designed according to the OTIS elevator model, the length of the rail support is not enough when installing the Mitsubishi elevator;
(5) The use of elonger rail support, in order to enhance the strength of the rail support, welding reinforcement between the brackets, resulting in rail support deformation;
(6) The rail support is not solid after spot welding, if full of welding, it is easy to make the rail bracket shift.
(1) When picking the bracket hole on the brick wall, the whole red brick around it should be removed instead of some red brick, and during the demolition process, if the red brick is broken, it needs to be removed together. The rail support hole should be made of a narrow inner width with a depth of not less than 130mm. When casting with concrete, it should be integrated with the surrounding brick walls, using high-quality cement above 400.  Hammering the concrete surface with a hammer, red brick exposed, proving that the well wall did not do concrete pre-buried, but directly hit the expansion bolts on the brick wall, and then the brick wall surface layer cement. This illegal and fraudulent means of installing elevators, when the elevator rails are subject to impact load, rail supports can be removed from the wall, resulting in extremely dangerous safety accidents. If this situation is found, the operation of the elevator should be stopped immediately and the concrete rail support should be re-installed. Hollow brick walls and foam brick walls can not be buried concrete support, according to the specific circumstances of the wellway, the construction of wellway steel structure;
(2) 1m from the bottom of the wellway, install the first row of rail supports. At 0.5m from the top of the wellway, install the last row of rail supports, which have no ring beams and require the installation of concrete brackets. Depending on GB10060-2011 4.2.1, each rail should have at least 2 rail brackets with a distance of no more than 2.5m. Since the distance between the ring beams is less than 2.5m,some installation teams take concrete casting brackets and abandon the installation of brackets on the ring beams, which is costly and is mainly to earn additional engineering fees from the owners, which is not desirable. Should be installed on the concrete ring beam bracket, bracket is not enough, with the elevator manufacturer to apply for purchase. Project manager in the acquisition of design drawings, site survey, should guide Party A in accordance with the acceptance criteria for construction, the problems found, early, early solution, with Party A actively complete the supervision work;
(3) In case the verticality of the wellway exceeds the standard, the reinforcement bracket or composite bracket should be selected. Regular maintenance, should be timely inspection of rail support, connecting plate, pressure plate and bolts and other components, loose phenomenon, should be tightened or replaced in a timely manner;
(4) Civil design should use standard wellways, suitable for various brands of elevators, non-standard wellways, should be as early as possible with the bidding manufacturers to communicate, do not wait for the goods to arrive at the scene, only to find that does not meet the requirements of rectification, invisible increase in a large amount of costs;
(5) If the wellway size is larger than the standard, you can choose to build the wellway girder, but the cost is higher. Select the elonger rail support, weld the reinforcement ribs before installation, and check the structure of the rail support to ensure that there is no deformation. It is best to choose an elonger bracket with a reinforcing rib adjustment hole, which can be replaced to enhance the strength of the rail support if conditions permit, and(6) spot welding on both sides of the rail support to confirm that the rail support is not deformed or shifted. On the bottom of the rail bracket full welding, reconfirm that the rail bracket is not deformed, shifted, and finally on both sides of the bracket full welding. Welding between the rails should be a success, not allowed to adjust the rails, and then make up welding, will affect the accuracy of the rail installation.
2,the installation of rails
    Installation process:
(1) According to GB10060-2011 4.2.7 car rails and the lower end of the pair of heavy rails with safety pliers should be supported on the ground solid rail seat. The base pit rail base must be flat, not more than 1/1000horizontal, the height is generally 60mm,and the surrounding area isflattened with concrete
(2) Check that the rails are not more than 1/6000straight, and that non-compliant rails must be corrected or replaced. Check if there is any damage to the end hoe and groove of the rail, clean and clean before it can be installed
(3) lifting the rails one by one with ahoist, mounting from the bottom up, the top end rails should be cut off and then hoisted according to the actual length;
(4) Adjust the rails from the bottom up with the school rail ruler and correct the deviation immediately if it is found .
    There is a problem:
(1) After the rails are installed, the elevator runs smoothly. But after a year's operation, the elevator shakes more powerfully from side to side;
(2) The rails are not placed in the warehouse according to the standard after they are opened, causing the rails to rust and twist. On-site installers can not correct the rails, the installation team directly put the twisted rails on the ground or top level, measuring the verticality of the rails exceeded the standard, can not be corrected;
(3) Each layer of rail connectors in the same plane, after the lighting at the rail joint, the connector at the rail distance exceeds the standard;
(4) After the elevator installation is completed, it is corrected with the school rail ruler, and some of the rails do not meet the adjustment accuracy requirements.
(1) With the settlement of the building, the rail self-weight, heat expansion and cooling and other factors, the rail will deform downwards, extend. Because the bottom of the rail is mounted on the ground of the bottom pit solid practice, the deformation of the rail can not be eliminated, will cause the rail twist, elevator shaking big. When installing, a gap of 200mm-300mm should be retained between the first rail and the ground of the pit. When the elevator runs for a period of time, step by step to eliminate the deformation of each section of rails;
(2) After the elevator is out of the box, all rails should be placed straight on the wooden side and covered with rainproof cloth on the rails. You cannot lean the rail sideways against the wall, nor can you stack other equipment on the rail. The straightness and distortion of the rails directly affect the smoothness of the elevator operation, and the adjustment with the hammer will cause the deformation of the processed rails. If the planing with the track cannot be corrected, the rails need to be replaced;
(3) When the rails are installed, the connecting parts of the two rails are staggered 0.5mfrom each other so that the rail steps are not in the sameposition, causing the elevator car to run to the steps to shake violently. When repairing the rail steps, make sure that the lighting length of the rails on both sides is not less than 300mm. The rails of the bottom and top layers should be configured according to the civil design plan, and try not to be processed in the field
(4) During the installation of the rails, one should be installed and one corrected. If the entire rail is installed and then corrected, the installation is inefficient and some of the rails cannot be corrected.
    The daily maintenance of the rail is very critical, should be every six months with a torque wrench lock the rail, rail support nut, found loose expansion bolts, should be re-punched installation. Due to the quality of rail installation, resulting in the elevator running level shaking larger, you can use rolling boots instead of the original sliding boots. For the installation of outdoor high-rise sightseeing elevator, should not use wire hammer as a prototype, should use laser rail correction instrument installation rail, it effectively avoids the outdoor wind leading to the shift of the wire hammer. After the rail installation is complete, if the problem is difficult to remedy, so in the installation, must follow the installation process, a successful installation adjustment. In the process of use, because of the quality of rail installation caused by the elevator operation vibration, it is necessary to build a seioge, reinstall the rail, the workload is large, the duration is long. Technical standards cannot be met without the construction of seiricks and major overhauls of rails.
On-site installation environment is more complex, the skill level of workers varies, some new processes, new methods, although in the test tower test qualified, but in the field application is still different. For a 30-story elevator, the rail should not be less than 13K,8K rail installation technology application although the cost savings, but in the long-term use of the rail is easy to deform, resulting in poor elevator comfort.